caves or washouts

zones of increased hole diameter caused by rock fragments that fall from the walls of a borehole and can block the hole or contaminate the cuttings and which erode or abrade the sidewall of the borehole by the action of the drilling. These zones can affect the accuracy of certain geophysical logs (especially density). Corrections to other geophysical logs can be made if a caliper log is available. The most common causes of caves or washouts include soft or fractured lithologies, the presence of waterproducing zones, and the downhole pressure of the drilling medium (fluid or air) that often causes differential erosion of various strata within the borehole.

ASTM D121-09a Standard Terminology of Coal and Coke. 2014.

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